Volume 2 (Issue 1)

pp. 41-49

Open Access

Research paper

Quality Analysis of Raw Milk in West Guji Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Abera Fekata*, Lammifyad Chimde, Kemer Yimam

AF, LC, KY: Department of Animal and Range Science, College of Agricultural Science, Bule Hora University, Ethiopia


*Corresponding author: Abera Fekata; Email: fekataabera@gmail.com

DOI:

Received: 

26 February 2022

Published:

06 May 2022

Cite as: Fekata, A., Chimde, L.,  & Yimam, K. (2022). Quality Analysis of Raw Milk in West Guji Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Inventum Biologicum, 2(1), 41–49. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6550829

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the compositional, physicochemical, and microbiological quality of raw milk in the West Guji zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Based on accessibility, proportionality, and target population, milk samples were obtained from thirty (30) lactating cows (9 cows in early lactation, 9 cows in mid-lactation, and 12 cows in late lactation). Soon after milking, approximately 300 lm of raw milk sample was collected from each milking cow and deposited into sterilized glass bottles. The obtained milk samples were preserved in an icebox and transported to the Ethiopian Meat and Dairy Institute's laboratory for analysis of raw milk's microbiological quality of raw milk. The collected milk samples were kept in an icebox and transported to Ethiopian meat and dairy institute laboratory to analyze microbial quality of raw milk. Each milk composition obtained from the laboratory result was analyzed using SAS software 9.4. Accordingly, the overall mean ±SE of chemical composition of raw milk in the three stage of lactation were; Moisture 87.99 ± 1.10 %, Fat 3.67 ± 0.41%, Protein 3.38 ± 0.04 %, Solid Not Fat 8.18 ± 0.09 %, Lactose 4.35 ± 0.08%, Total Solid 12.01 ± 0.39% and Ash 0.67 ± 0.01 %. Whereas, the overall mean ±SE of the physicochemical quality of raw milk in the study areas were; Specific gravity 1.023+0.002 (g/cm3), titratable acidity 0.20 ± 0.00(%) and Freezing point -0.50 ± 0.03(%). On another hand, the overall mean ±SE for coliform count was 4.51±0.15 (log10cfu/ml) and Total Bacterial Counts 6.06±0.20 (log10cfu/ml) in the three stage of lactation in the study area. In general, it can be concluded that the chemical composition and microbiological quality of raw milk produced by farmers in the study areas were found to be within Ethiopian quality standards. The milk was tested and found to be safe for human consumption as well as further processing. The sampled milk is safe for human consumption as well as for further processing. Thus, the channel of the milk from producers to consumers was within quality standard and wholesale in the study area.

Keywords:

Cow milk, Ethiopia, Physicochemical property, Quality analysis, Raw milk

References

  1. Abunna & Fufa (2018). Assessment of Post-Harvest Handling Practices, Quality and Safety of Milk and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Escherichia Coli O157 : H7 Isolated From Milk in and around Asella Town. Annals of Public Health and Research, 5(1), 1–11.

  2. Abunna, F., Merid, B., Goshu, G., Waktole, H., & Mammo, G. (2018). Assessment of major reproductive health problems, their effect on reproductive performances and association with brucellosis in dairy cows in Bishoftu town, Ethiopia. Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research, 7(1), 14–20. https://doi.org/10.15406/jdvar.2018.07.00183

  3. Ahmed, L., Islam, S. K., Khan, N. I., & Nahid, S. N. (2004). Vitamin C content in human milk (colostrum, transitional and mature) and serum of a sample of Bangladeshi mothers. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 10(1), 1–4.

  4. American Public Health Association. (1992). Standard method for the examination of dairy products (16th ed), 1992 (pp. 213–223). APHA.

  5. Asaminew, T., & Eyassu, S. (2011). Microbial quality of raw cow’s milk collected from farmers and dairy cooperatives in Bahir Dar Zuria and Mecha District, Ethiopia. Agricultural and Biology: J. North America, 2(1), 29-33.

  6. Asfaw, N. (2009). Improving smallholder farmers’ marketed supply and market access for dairy products in Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. Research Reports. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), 21.

  7. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1990). Official methods of analysis (15th ed). Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

  8. Aysheshim, B., Fekadu, B., & Mitiku, E. (2015). Chemical composition and microbial quality of cow milk in urban andpre-urban area of Dangila town Western Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Global J. Dairy Farm Milk Prod., 3(1), 081–085.

  9. Bintsis, T., Angelidis, A. S., & Psoni, L. (2008). Modern laboratory practices, analysis of dairy products. In: Advanced dairy science and technology. Britz TJ and Robinson RK (Eds). Wiley publishers.

  10. Dehinenet, G., Makonnen, H., Ashenafi, M., & Emmanuelle, G. (2013). Determinants of raw milk quality under a smallholder production system in selected areas of Amhara and Oromia National states Ethiopia. Agric. Biol., J, 4(1), 84–90.

  11. Derese, T. (2008). Present situation of urban and peri-urban milk production and quality of raw milk produced in west Shoa zone [Thesis]. Oromia Region. Haramaya University.

  12. FAOSTAT (Food and Agricultural organization of the United Nations Statistics). (2007). Online database on food and agricultural products and producers. Food and Agriculture Organization. Feed resources and its utilization practices by smallholder farmers in Meta-Robi District, West Shewa Zone. Oromia Regional State.

  13. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2013). Milk and dairy product in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

  14. Gemechu, A. T. (2017). Assessment of safety and quality of raw whole cow milk produced and marketed by smallholders in Central Highlands of. Food Science and Quality Management, 49, 63–71.

  15. Gemechu, T., Beyen, F., & Eshetu, M. (2015). Physical and chemical qualities of raw cow milk produced and marketed in Shashamane town, Southern Ethiopian. J. Food Agric. Sci., 5(2), 7–13.

  16. Gemechu, T., Mahmoud, H., Parry, E. H., Phillips, D. I., & Yacoub, M. H. (2017). Community-based prevalence study of rheumatic heart disease in rural Ethiopia. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 24(7), 717–723. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487316687104

  17. Getabalew, M., Alemneh, T., & Zewdie, D. (2020). Review on hormonal metabolic adaptations of farm animals. Stress, 8, 9.

  18. Godefay, B., & Molla, B. (2000). Bacteriological quality of raw cow’s milk from four dairy farms and a milk collection center in and around Addis Ababa. Berl, Munch, Tierarztl, Wochenschr, 113, 276–278.

  19. Gurmessa, G. T., Eshetu, M., & Regassa, A. (2015). Physico-chemical qualities of raw cow milk in Ethiopia. The case of Borana zone, Yabello District Yabello Pastoral and Dry Land Agriculture Research Center, Yabello, Ethiopia. Global J. dairy farming and milk production, 3(2), 086–091.

  20. Hamad, M. (2015). 1 and Baiomy, A.A. New European. Physical properties and chemical composition of cow's and buffalo's milk in Qena governorate.

  21. ILRI. (1995). Rural dairy technology. International Livestock Research Institute, International livestock Centre, Ethiopia.

  22. Kebede, H., & Meskel, D. H. (2018). Determination of adulteration and chemical composition of raw milk sold in Hossana town, South Ethiopia. Dairy and Vet Sci. J, 6(5), 001–007.

  23. Legesse, A., Adamu, F., Alamirew, K., & Feyera, T. (2017). A comparative study on the physicochemical parameters of milk of camel, cow, and goat in Somali regional state, Ethiopia. Chemical Sciences Journal, 8(4), 171–176.

  24. Marwan, A. A., & Singer, A. M. (2018). Influence of exogenous enzymes supplementation on in vitro ruminal fermentation and productive performance of sheep. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds, 21(3), 645–656. https://doi.org/10.21608/ejnf.2018.75759

  25. Mebrate, G., Alemneh, T., & Etagegneh, B. (2020). Review paper review on milk and milk product handling practices, utilization and microbial quality in Ethiopia. International J. Dairy Science and Technology (IJDST), 4(1), 218–224.

  26. Melaku, M., Zeleke, M., Getinet, M., & Mengistie, T. (2011). Preweaning growth performances of Fogera calves at Metekel cattle improvement and multiplication ranch, North West Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23(9), 25-36.

  27. Merwan, A., Nezif, A., & Metekia, T. (2018). Review on milk and milk product safety, quality assurance and control. International Journal of Livestock Production, 9(4), 67–78. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJLP2017.0403

  28. NAIC. (2002). National Artificial Insemination Center [Annual report 2001].

  29. O’Connor, C. B. (1994). Rural dairy technology. ILRI Training Manual No.1. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  30. O’Connor, C. B. (1995). Rural dairy technology. ILRI Training Manual No.1. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  31. O’Connor, D. L. (1994). Folate in goat milk products with reference to other vitamins and minerals: A review. Small Ruminant Research, 14(2), 143–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-4488(94)90104-X

  32. O’Mahony, F. (1998). Rural dairy technology- experiences in Ethiopia. ILCA manual No 4. Dairy Technology Unit. ILCA, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, 64pp.

  33. Raff, H. (2011). Market implications of changing fat content of milk and dairy products, fat content and composition of animal products. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5(2), 6–17.

  34. Richardson, H. G. (1985). Standard methods for the examination of dairy products (6th ed) (pp. 133–150). American Public Health Association.

  35. Sherikar, A. T., Bechhil, V. N., & Thaplyal, D. C. (2004). Text book of elements of Veterinary Public Health. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 75–120.

  36. Tesfaye, T., Kebede, A., & Seifu, E. (2015). Physico Chemical Properties of Cow Milk Produced and Marketed in Dire Dawa town, Eastern Ethiopia. Food Science and Quality Management, 42, 56–62.

Funding Information

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Declaration of Conflict

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.